How Acids Affect Corrosion and Rust Rates | science project (2023)

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Have you ever left your bike outside in the rain? Then it is possible that later you discovered unpleasant surprises: reddish-brown spots, the so-calledrosa,and your wheels, brakes, and transmissions may no longer work as well. In this chemistry science fair project, you'll learn why rust, a type of corrosion, is a serious problem. You will also find that not all showers are created equal! Find out which ones can speed up the oxidation process.


fields of science



Required time

Short (2-5 days)



availability of materials

readily available


Low ($20 - $50)


(Video) Corrosion and rust- Science

Wear gloves to avoid splinters of steel wool.


Kristin Strong, Friends of Science

How Acids Affect Corrosion and Rust Rates | science project (1)


Determine how pH levels affect the rate of corrosion.


Have you ever been told to get your bike out of the rain? Have you ever wondered why? After all, rain is just water, so maybe the rain can clean your bike, right? The problem is that some parts of your bike are made ofStahl.Steel sounds like a strong metal and it is, but the main thing isElementmade of steelFerro,and in the presence of water, iron readily combines with another element, calledOxygen,But the formiron oxide,also known as a reddish-brown substanceRost.

Rust turns the steel into another material, weaker than the original steel. Rust is a big problem as many things that people use every day are made of steel, such as cars, trucks, bridges, roofs, storage tanks, machines, nuts and bolts. When these objects are left unprotected and exposed to water, they rust, and this damage costs the United States and Europe a lot of money, more than 3% of the value of everything they make in a year. However, steel continues to be widely used because it has an excellent strength-to-weight ratio, the best of any common building material, and is fireproof, resistant to mold and termites, and does not expand or contract with changes in temperature. . and can be carried out with a constant quality.

How Acids Affect Corrosion and Rust Rates | science project (2)
Illustration 1.These are examples of machinery and steel structures on a farm showing signs of rust (iron rust), a type of rustCorrosion.

Rust is an example of a process calledCorrosion.Corrosion means that a chemical reaction has taken place in which the metalAtomcombine with oxygen to form arust coating.If these are metal atomsFerro,Corrosion is "bad" because it quickly corrodes and weakens the original steel material. However, if the metal atoms are of another metal, it will corrode morethis,In focuszincochrome,then corrosion can be really useful because the oxide layer that forms from the reaction with these metals canEvitathe bad kind of corrosion. For this reason, steel is often mixed with other metals such as chrome. As chromium corrodes, it forms a protective layer of chromium oxide on the outside of the steel, greatly retarding the corrosion of iron on steel. It keeps your stainless steel pots and pans shiny and rust-free, even with daily exposure to water when you cook with them or wash them. Other ways to prevent steel from rusting is to paint it or cast it in concrete.

When iron and oxygen combine to form iron oxide (rust),heatis released, which means the reaction isexothermia(exomeans "off" andThermal-means "heat", so heat is sent when the reaction takes place). With a thermometer and stopwatch, you can measure how fast heat is released (thequalify), and this gives you an idea of ​​how fast the reaction is taking place. In this Chemical Science Fair project, you will explore howacidsChange the rust rate when comparing a rainwater model and models foracid rain.Acid rain occurs when sulfur and nitrogen are produced.linksenter the atmosphere. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds can be released into the atmosphere by natural events like a volcanic eruption or human events like burning coal to power a factory. These compounds mix with oxygen in the atmosphere to form acids, which combine with water droplets; the result is more acid rain than normal. Normal rainwater has apH valueabout 5.6; Acid rain has a pH of 5.0 or less. Are you ready to see what regular and acidic rainwater can do to your bike parts? Let us begin!

terms and concepts

  • Stahl
  • Element
  • Ferro
  • oxygen
  • iron oxide
  • rosa
  • Corrosion
  • Atom
  • rust coating
  • zinc
  • chrome
  • Exothermia
  • acid
  • acid rain
  • compound
  • pH value


  • What element do you like to combine iron with?
  • What three things are needed for iron to turn into iron oxide?
  • Where is steel used?
  • What two types of atoms combine during the corrosion process?
  • Is corrosion a bad process?


This source describes all types of corrosion:

This source explains how the corrosion known as rust (or iron oxide) forms:

These sources describe what acid rain is:

  • United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (ohne Datum).What is acid rain?. Consulted on October 19, 2017.
  • # Link Name="EnvSci_p016.2" Value="HtmlAnchor" HtmlText="Acid rain student site". #] (South Dakota.). Zugang am April 3, 2009.

If you need help creating bar charts, try this website:

  • National Center for Educational Statistics (undated).create a chart. Consulted on April 3, 2009.

materials and equipment

  • disposable gloves; Available at your pharmacy or hardware store
  • chronograph
  • Rimmed Test Tube, 25mm x 150mm, Pyrex #9800; available at science supply stores such as Edmund Scientific, item number 3081272
  • Rubber stopper with 1 hole for test tube, size #3; available from specialist scientific shops, e.g.
  • Thermometer with a probe that fits into the hole in the rubber stopper like a cooking thermometer
  • steel wool, the best quality available; available at the hardware store
  • pair of scissors
  • Rule
  • Choose two of the following acids. They should all be at room temperature and you will need 1 cup of any acid of your choice.
    1. lemon juice
    2. Vinegar
    3. Orange juice
    4. Tomato juice, without salt
    5. Black coffee, in liquid form
  • Distilled water at room temperature and exposed to air for at least a few hours (1 cup); available in grocery stores
  • bowl (3)
  • fine kitchen towel
  • tall plastic cup
  • laboratory notebook
  • graph paper

Disclaimer:Science Buddies participates in affiliate programsHome Scientific Tools,,organic carolina, zjameco electronics. Revenue from affiliate programs supports support.Science Buddies, a 501(c)(3) public charity, and we keep our resources free to everyone. Our top priority is student learning. If you have any feedback (positive or negative) about purchases you've made for science projects based on our website recommendations, please let us know. write to

Testing execution


  • Before starting your experiment, make sure the distilled water has been opened and exposed to air for at least a few hours. This allows it to absorb some carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, lowering its pH from around 7 to around 5.8. Distilled water should serve as a model for "normal" rainwater, which has a pH value of around 5.6.
  • The two acids you choose act like two different models of acid rain, each with a different pH.
  • Make sure all your materials are at room temperature.
  • Read all instructions before beginning. Some of the steps need to be completed in rapid succession, so familiarize yourself with all the steps before you begin.

Get ready to test your rain models

  1. Create three data tables for each precipitation model.
time (minutes) Test 1 Temperature (°F) Test 2 Temperature (°F) Test 3 Temperature (°F) average temperature (°F)

Tabla 1.Precipitation model data 1

  1. Put on disposable gloves so you don't pick up splinters from the steel wool.
  2. Using the ruler, measure 1 inch (inches) along a pad of steel wool. Using scissors, cut to the width of the pad at the 1-in. Brand. Set the cut strip aside. Continue across the width of the pad 1 inch. intervals until exhausted. Repeat step 2 for two or more pads, or until you have a total of nine 1-inch pads. Strips of steel wool.

How Acids Affect Corrosion and Rust Rates | science project (3)
Figure 2.This photo shows how to cut a 1-in. Remove a pad of steel wool.

  1. Pour about 1 cup of your first acid into a small bowl.
  2. Pour about 1 cup of your second acid into a second small bowl.
  3. In a third small bowl, pour about 1 cup of distilled water that has been exposed to air for at least a few hours.

Put your rain models to the test

  1. Have a thin kitchen towel and a plastic cup handy.
  2. Screw the rubber stopper onto the thermometer probe as shown on the right hand side of Figure 4.
  3. Place the rubber stopper with the attached probe in the test tube. Record the temperature from the thermometer in your laboratory notebook. This will be your "No Deco" temperature.
  4. Dip a strip of steel wool into the container of your first acid for 30 seconds (sec). It can float on top of the liquid, so use your fingers to keep it below the surface.

How Acids Affect Corrosion and Rust Rates | science project (4)
Figure 3.This photo shows a strip of steel wool soaked in one of the acids.

  1. Remove the steel wool from the first small bowl and squeeze out the excess liquid over a sink for a few seconds.
  2. Immediately,Remove the thermometer probe from the test tube and screw the steel embedded into the thermometer probe under the rubber stopper as shown below. Rotating the probe while passing it through the steel wool will make it easier to pass through.

How Acids Affect Corrosion and Rust Rates | science project (5)
Figure 4.This photo shows the rubber stopper and steel wool being passed through the thermometer probe.

(Video) Science Fair Experiment (how acid affects the rate of corrosion)
  1. Replace the thermometer probe in the test tube and close the lid.

How Acids Affect Corrosion and Rust Rates | science project (6)
Figure 5.This photo shows the thermometer probe with the soaked steel wool sealed inside the test tube.

  1. Wrap the test tube in a thin kitchen towel and place it upright in a plastic cup so you can read the meter. The towel and cup help retain the generated heat. Work quickly to set this up as the reactions are already happening.

How Acids Affect Corrosion and Rust Rates | science project (7)
Figure 6.This photo shows the sealed test tube ready for reading.

  1. Start stopwatch and record temperatureeach minutefor 10 min and then again 5 min later.
  2. Stop the stopwatch and start it again.
  3. Remove the probe from the test tube and examine the steel wool. Record your observations in your lab notebook. Use the ruler to measure the longest oxide length observed.
  4. Discard the steel wool and wash and dry the test tube. Rinse and dry the thermometer probe. Allow test tube and probe to come to room temperature before proceeding.
  5. Repeat steps 1-12 two more times with your first acid, for a total of three tries.
  6. Repeat steps 1-13 for the second acid.
  7. Repeat steps 1-13 for distilled water.

Analysis of your results

  1. Calculate and record the average temperature for each time listed in each data table.
  2. Use the table below to determine the pH of the liquids you are testing and record it in your lab notebook.
Liquid approximate pH
lemon juice 2.2
Vinegar 3.0
Lowest acid rain on record in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (1981) 3.6
Orange juice 3.7
Tomato juice 4.1
Average Rainfall in the Eastern United States Today 4.5
Black coffee 4.9
"normal" rain 5.6
Distilled water exposed to air. 5.8
Fresh, distilled water, not exposed to air. 7,0

Tabla 2.pH table for important liquids for this experiment

  1. For each data table, create a line chart that shows time on the x-axis and average temperature on the y-axis. You can create the chart by hand or use a website likecreate a chartto create the graph on a computer and print it.
  2. Based on your results, how did the pH affect the rate at which heat is released? Which precipitation pattern produced the most rapid increase in temperature? Which precipitation pattern produced the largest temperature difference between the initial and final temperatures? Do you think steel rusts faster in normal rain or in acid rain?
  3. Have your rain models reached a "steady state," a point at which the temperature stops changing? If this is the case, create a bar graph showing the pH on the x-axis and the final steady-state temperature on the y-axis. How does the steady state temperature change with pH?

How Acids Affect Corrosion and Rust Rates | science project (8)

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  • Investigate what happened to the steel wool soaked in the test tube for a longer period of time, e.g. B. 24 hours have passed. What happens to the temperature over time? Why do you think he is behaving like this? What happens to the appearance of the steel wool? Measure the length of any changes you see.
  • Instead of using the pH chart shown above to approximate the pH of the solutions tested, use pH paper (litmus paper) to measure the actual pH of the solutions tested.
  • Try adding salt to the solutions to see if it affects the rate at which heat is released.


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Cite this page

Here you will find general information about appointments. Be sure to check the format, including capitalization, for the method you are using, and update your citation as necessary.

MLA style

Team of Friends of Science. "Oxidation: How Acids Affect the Rate of Corrosion".science friends, April 9, 2022, Accessed February 1, 2023.

APA style

Team of Friends of Science. (April 9, 2022).Oxidation: how acids affect the rate of corrosion.Retrieved from

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Date of last broadcast: 2022-04-09

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How acids affect the rate of corrosion experiment? ›

The corrosion rate tends to decrease with respect to pH; this means that corrosion rate is proportional to the solution's acid concentration. The higher the concentration of nitric acid applied in the corrosion solution, the higher the corrosion rate is obtained.

How does acid affect corrosion? ›

Acid corrosion is the wearing away, or gradual destruction, of materials by acidic compounds. The acids involved may come from the atmosphere, soil or groundwater, and water is necessary for the reactions to proceed. Acid corrosion of metals is caused by electrochemical processes.

How acids affect the rate of corrosion science buddies? ›

More acidity (indicated by lower pH) increases the rate of the steel wool oxidation. You should see a faster temperature increase (change in temperature with time) for lemon juice than for vinegar. The “normal rainwater” should give the slowest temperature rise.

How does acid rain affect the rate of corrosion? ›

Effects of Acid Rain on Materials

The acidic particles corrode metal and cause paint and stone to deteriorate more quickly. They also dirty the surfaces of buildings and other structures such as monuments.

Why does acid increase corrosion? ›

Corrosion reaction like almost all chemical reaction. Normally as the concentration of a corrosive acid media is increased, the corrosion rate is likewise increased. This is primarily due to the fact that the amounts of hydrogen ions, which are the active species, are increased, as acid concentration is increased[7].

Why do metals corrode faster in acid? ›

Acidic environment: since rusting involves hydrogen ions (H+), an acidic environment would increase the concentration of hydrogen ions, making the iron rust faster.

How does acid prevent rusting? ›

Also, the acid oxidizes the upper layer of the iron under the rust to form a rust-resisting oxide-layer. Also, the acid oxidizes the upper layer of the iron under the rust to form a rust-resisting oxide-layer.

How does acid affect metal? ›

In general, acids react with metals to give salt and release hydrogen gas. In general, bases do not react with metals and release hydrogen gas.

How are acids corrosive in nature? ›

Some Acids are highly corrosive in nature which means that they corrode or rust metals. Acids tend to evolve hydrogen gas whilst reacting with an active metal such as Zn, Mg, etc. They produce H+ ions when mixed with water. Acids lose their acidity when mixed with a base.

How does acid rain increase the rate of rusting? ›

3) The rise in temperature will be higher when steel wool is subjected to more acidic rainwater as higher H+ ion availability will likely speed up the iron oxidation process and hence the rate of rusting.

Does acidic water cause corrosion? ›

Water with a pH below 6.5 will be corrosive, especially if alkalinity also is low. However, water with pH values above 7.5 also can be corrosive when alkalinity is low.

Does acid rain increase rust? ›

Damage to your car's paint is caused when acid rain leaves behind it's acidic material after the water has evaporated. When this acidic material is combined with sunlight, the resulting effect can be strong enough to eat away at your paint, leaving your car vulnerable to problems like rust.

Does acid make metal corrode? ›

Acids corrode many kinds of metals through some chemical processes. Not all the metals react with acids in a similar way but some metals are more vulnerable to corrosion than other metals. Acid corrosion of metals is due to electrochemical processes.

Why does acid react with rust? ›

When HCl encounters iron, whether it is oxidized iron (Fe2O3) or metallic iron (Fe), it wants to form iron chloride (FeCl2 or FeCl3). Therefore, when acid reacts with metal, it tends to dissolve both the rust and the metal, in order to form the iron chloride.

What factors affect the rate of rusting? ›

There are several factors influencing the rate of corrosion including diffusion, temperature, conductivity, type of ions, pH value and electrochemical potential.

What acid kills rust? ›

You can treat rusting metal with muriatic acid, and it will dissolve the rust, which is why steel pickling, a process that removes tarnish from steel prior to marketing, makes use of it. You're right to have reservations about using such a strong acid for cleaning rust around the house, though.

How do you win a science fair project? ›

If you want to win at the higher science fair levels, originality and innovativeness are extremely important. Develop a new method or technique, or research something nobody knows about. If you cannot find something new to develop, take an old method and redesign it.

What are 5 testable questions? ›

A testable question is a question that can be answered using scientific methods such as: Research. Field Study.
Does…? and have a style such as:
  • If we change _______ how does it affect _______?
  • What happens to _____ if we change _______?
  • How does changing ______ affect ______?
  • How does ______ affect ________?
Mar 7, 2022

What are the top 10 science fair projects for 5th grade? ›

Try one at the science fair, or use a few to liven up your lesson plans.
  • Race down a LEGO zip-line. ...
  • Slow your roll. ...
  • Erupt a salt dough volcano. ...
  • Peel an orange to understand plate tectonics. ...
  • Discover the strength of eggshells. ...
  • Fly clothespin airplanes. ...
  • Demonstrate the “magic” leakproof bag. ...
  • Explore the science of glow sticks.
Jan 11, 2023

What is the most corrosive acid to metal? ›

Fluoroantimonic acid is corrosive.
Fluoroantimonic acid.
Related acidsAntimony pentafluoride Hydrogen fluoride Magic acid
30 more rows

How do acids react with metals examples? ›

Reactions of acids with metals
  • Acid + metal → salt + hydrogen.
  • For example:
  • Hydrochloric acid + magnesium → magnesium chloride + hydrogen.
  • Zinc and iron also react with hydrochloric acid.
  • Magnesium, zinc and iron also react with sulfuric acid. ...
  • sulfuric acid + iron → iron(II) sulfate + hydrogen.

How acid react with metal explain with example? ›

Some examples of acid metal chemical reactions: Magnesium + Hydrochloric acid ⟶ Magnesium chloride + Hydrogen gas [Mg(s)+2HCl(aq)⟶MgCl2(aq)+H2(g)] Magnesium + Sulphuric acid ⟶ Magnesium sulphate + Hydrogen [Mg(s)+H2SO4(aq)⟶MgSO4(aq)+H2(g)] Iron + Sulfuric acid ⟶ Iron sulfate + Hydrogen [Fe(s)+H2SO4(aq)⟶FeSO4(aq)+H2(g)]

What is an example of acids are corrosive? ›

Bromine, sodium hydroxide, sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide are examples of highly corrosive liquids. See Chemical-Specfic Protocols for specific corrosive liquids such as Hydrofluoric Acid and Phenol. The following should be considered: The eyes are particularly vulnerable.

Which acids are highly corrosive? ›

The most common corrosive liquids are acids- hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, chromic acid, acetic acid, and hydrofluoric acid and bases- ammonium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide (caustic potash), and sodium hydroxide (caustic soda).

Is a strong acid always corrosive? ›

A strong acid is one that completely ionizes (dissociates) in a solution. (See Appendix for a complete list of Strong Acids.) All acids in this class are highly corrosive chemicals.

How can the rate of rusting be increased? ›

The rusting of iron speeds up when it is exposed to acid rains. Higher pH inhibits the corrosion of iron. Salt: Iron tends to rust faster in the sea, due to the presence of various salts. Saltwater contains many ions that speed up the rusting process via electrochemical reactions.

What are the 3 main causes of corrosion? ›

Causes of Corrosion

Metal corrodes when it reacts with another substance such as oxygen, hydrogen, an electrical current or even dirt and bacteria.

What happens if water is too acidic? ›

The danger of more acidic water – when the pH is less than 6.5 – is that it can leach metals from the well and from the pipes that bring you water. These metals include lead, manganese, copper and iron, and they can be toxic in large amounts. So acidic water obviously poses a health risk.

Does acid or alkaline cause rust? ›

Alkaline environments are less prone to cause corrosion than acidic environments, but it is possible for alkalinity to cause corrosion as well.

Why does pH affect rusting? ›

Answer and Explanation: pH value is important factor influencing the rate of corrosion, because hydrogen ions have the ability to modify the surface of metal and therefore changes the rate of corrosion.

What is the difference between rust and corrosion? ›

Rusting mainly occurs when a metal is exposed to air and moisture. Corrosion results in the formation of the oxides of metal or salts. Only iron oxide is formed when rusting takes place. Corrosion can occur in materials like polymers and ceramics and this type is known as degradation.

What substance causes rust? ›

Rust results from a reaction called oxidation, in which iron reacts with water and oxygen to form hydrated iron (III) oxide.

How do acids react with metals experiment? ›

Metal + acid → salt + hydrogen

When a metal is put in acid, it gets smaller and smaller as it gets used up in the chemical reaction . At the same time, bubbles of gas can be seen. The bubbles produced in the reaction are hydrogen gas. This can be proven using a burning splint because hydrogen is flammable .

What happens when metal is exposed to acid? ›

Metals react with acid to give hydrogen gas and form metal salts.

How does pH level affect corrosion rate? ›

It is found that the corrosion rate of carbon steel decreases with increasing pH value toward the alkaline end while increases with increasing AC current density. When the solution pH becomes highly alkaline, say, 12, passivation occurs on carbon steel surfaces, with an enlarging passive region as pH increases.

Is a stronger acid more corrosive? ›

Strong acids such as Hydrofluoric acid ( HF ) have exceptionally low pH and are highly corrosive.

What is an example of a reaction between acid and metal? ›

Here are some examples of acid metal chemical reactions: Magnesium + hydrochloric acid = magnesium chloride + hydrogen gas (Mg + 2HCl = MgCl2 + H2) Magnesium + sulphuric acid = magnesium sulphate + hydrogen (Mg + H2SO4 = MgSO4 + H2) Iron + sulfuric acid = iron sulfate + hydrogen (Fe + H2SO4 = FeSO4 + H2)

What is the hypothesis for acid and base experiment? ›

The hypothesis for this experiment therefore is that the pH will either decrease very slowly or increase very slowly, depending on whether this is a strong acid-strong base or strong base-weak acid reaction, initially and will make a large leap in pH at the equivalence point(s).

What acid corrodes metal? ›

As a corrosive substance, nitric acid is capable of dissolving many materials including most metals.

Does high or low pH cause corrosion? ›

If the pH is below 6.0, the water is considered highly corrosive. If the pH is between 6.0 and 6.9, the water is somewhat corrosive, and stagnant testing is probably appropriate. If the pH is between 7.0 and 7.5, the water is probably notexcessively corrosive.

Does a higher pH increase corrosion? ›

It has been found that the corrosion rate generally increases linearly with increasing Cl concentration in the range 100–5000 ppm. With increasing pH, the corrosion rate decreases, being highest at pH 4 and lowest at pH 9.


1. Effect of pH on Corrosion - Acidic Corrosion : Lecture Series 13 - pH vs Corrosion Rate
(Mech Technical)
2. Experiment 13.2 - Methods to prevent rusting
(Andy's Chemistry)
3. Rusting Experiment | Rust Prevention Methods | Corrosion | GCSE Chemistry
(The Elkchemist)
4. 💯√ The Acidic Environments Accelerate Corrosion Explained with Examples. Watch this video to find!
5. Corrosion Chem Group Project
(Rachel Rutherford)
6. Why does salt water rust iron faster than tap water?


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